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Unhealthy Food Advertising Targets Consumers of Color

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Candy, sugary drinks, snacks, and cereal made up 73% of food and beverage ad spending on Black-targeted and Spanish-language TV in 2021, according to a new study by the Rudd Center for Food Policy & Health at the University of Connecticut.

The more than $1 billion spent on this targeted marketing exacerbates inequities in poor diet and diet-related diseases in communities of color, including heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. For this report, the Rudd Center analyzed TV advertising by all food and beverage companies. However, 19 companies were responsible for 75% of all TV food and beverage advertising spending, 79% of Spanish- language TV advertising, and 82% of Black-targeted TV advertising. 

These companies included PepsiCo, Kellogg Company, The Coca-Cola Company, The Hershey Company, General Mills, Mondelez International, The Kraft Heinz Company, Mars, Ferrero USA, Nestle USA, Keurig Dr Pepper, Red Bull, Campbell Soup Company, Unilever United States, Tyson Foods, Danone North America, The Wonderful Company, Post Foods, and Conagra Brands, Inc.

The proportion of unhealthy products featured in food and beverage TV ads targeted to Black and Hispanic consumers increased from 2017 to 2021.

  • Candy, sugary drinks, snacks, and cereals represented three-quarters of Spanish-language and Black-targeted TV ad spending in 2021, up from approximately one-half each in 2017.
  • In 2021, Black youth and adults viewed 9% to 21% more food and beverage TV ads compared to their white peers.
  • Companies also increased their focus on advertising to Spanish-speaking audiences, evidenced by an increase in the proportion of total TV ad dollars companies dedicated to Spanish-language TV from 2017 to 2021 (7.8% vs. 8.5%).

There were reductions in total TV food and beverage advertising spending and TV ad exposure due to major shifts in TV viewing habits.

  • Total TV food and beverage ad spending declined by 25% between 2017 and 2021, and children and teens viewed 58% to 62% fewer TV ads overall.
  • TV ads viewed by Hispanic teens on Spanish-language TV declined at a lower rate, by 38%.
  • Disparities in TV advertising exposure for Black versus white youth also decreased, due to greater declines in TV ads viewed by Black youth (66-70%) than by white youth (56-58%).
  • However, reductions in TV food ad exposure mirrored declines in the amount of time spent watching TV, including by Black, white, and Hispanic youth, and do not appear to reflect a change in ethnically targeted marketing strategies by food companies.

A review of companies’ public statements also found numerous examples of targeted marketing campaigns aimed at multicultural youth.

  • Many campaigns incorporated hip-hop and Latinx music celebrities and other youth-oriented themes. Extensive cause-related marketing included donations and collaborations with nonprofits to benefit communities of color and foster goodwill for almost exclusively unhealthy food and beverage brands.

“Companies express how much they respect the culture and concerns of Black and Hispanic communities, but at the same time, they appear to ignore the negative health impacts of the products they promote to Black and Hispanic youth,” said Fran Fleming-Milici, PhD, study co-author and the Rudd Center’s director of Marketing Initiatives.

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Black Doctors to Address the Unnecessary Deaths of Black Women in Childbirth

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Dr. Linda Burke shares the heartbreaking story on her website – The Smart Mother’s Guide – how Dr. Chaniece Wallace died in 2020 from complications due to childbirth (preeclampsia-related issues). Amber Rose, Kia Dixon Johnson, Sha-Asia Washington and countless other Black women have also died in childbirth. 

The unnecessary death of Black women in childbirth is rising. The overall U.S. maternal mortality rate has been increasing, but the data behind the African American community paints an even more devastating picture. Last year, the CDC and an October 2022 GAO report that the Black Maternal Mortality Rate in 2021 was 68.9 deaths per 100,000 (approximately 2,480 women) compared to 26.1 per 100,000 (about 940 women) for white women. Health and Human Services officials and stakeholders said the pandemic worsened factors contributing to maternal health disparities, like access to care.

Additionally, disparities in other adverse outcomes, such as preterm and low birthweight births, persisted for Black or African-American (not Hispanic or Latina) women, according to GAO analysis of CDC data. Black patients often complain that their concerns are not heard nor respected when being seen by a doctor outside of their race, creating a divide between the doctor-patient relationship and ultimately preventing the best possible care.

To affect change, Dr. Linda Burke and an online group of 748+ Black ob-gyn female physicians rallied, but attempts to obtain seats on professional decision-making committees proved futile, leading Dr. Burke to create WHYS (We Hear You, Sister!). WHYS is a resource that would address the challenges patients face in connecting with a doctor they could relate to and bring a more positive outcome to some doctor-patient exchanges.

WHYS is a growing online database and community of 124+ passionate ob-gyn physicians who practice across 29 states in the US, where 88% are board-certified. So far, Texas has about 17 doctors on the list women can contact and none so far from San Antonio.

“Countless Black lives could be saved if women of color knew where to find an ob-gyn that could better understand their challenges,” states Dr. Burke, who has been moved by many stories shared by her colleagues about the uphill battle. “The ability to use my network to build this resource in an attempt to make a difference in the lives of others drives me daily and my greatest hope is that WHYS grows to be a trusted community for all in need.” 

WHYS officially launches in February 2023, celebrating Black History Month and Dr. Rebecca Lee Crumpler’s birthday. Dr. Crumpler was the first Black woman to earn a medical degree in the United States. She battled deep-seated prejudice against women and African Americans in medicine. After earning her degree in Boston, she spent time in Richmond, Virginia, after the American Civil War, caring for formerly enslaved people. In 1883, Dr. Crumpler published her Book of Medical Discourses. It chronicles her experiences as a doctor and guides maternal and child health.

To learn more about Dr. Linda Burke and the WHYS movement, visit (TheSmartMothersGuide.com).

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Finding Ways to Prioritize Yourself

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By Ebony Huerta Wells

Stress, depression, and anxiety, coupled with expectations from family, society, and the fast-paced world we live in, can easily set up a person for a downward spiral. 

We see this played out daily in news headlines with high crime rates, suicides, and broken families. This is especially a concern for people of color who already live in a world of systemic racism. Just last year, it was reported that researchers studied nearly 200 Black mothers and found higher rates of postpartum anxiety and depression when linked to the pandemic and racism. 

While systemic racism will not be solved overnight, communities of color can find ways to prioritize their happiness and focus on their mental health. 

In a recent episode of Oprah Daily’s “The Life You Want,” she interviews therapist and author Dr. Corey Yeager, who counsels players and staff in the NBA’s Detroit Pistons. In his new book, “How Am I Doing,” he asks readers in the opening pages, who is the most important person in your life? 

Oprah answered (like many others) everyone else except her. Dr. Yeager said it’s hard to see ourselves as No. 1 when we haven’t been taught how to do it. 

“Where does your happiness come from?” said Yeager in his workshop with Oprah. “No one can make us happy. My happiness comes from me. Others can facilitate it, but my happiness is rooted in me. I have to find ways to engage with myself.”

How does Yeager prioritize his happiness? He creates habits by smiling at himself first thing in the morning and lifting his mood by playing Bill Withers “Lovely Day” while getting dressed for work. 

Other ways to keep yourself No. 1 are learning to meditate, walk your dog, read a book, exercise, get your hair done, or go on spa appointments. Self-care can cost nothing or something you lavishly give yourself once in a while. 

Yeager adds that every day will not be perfect, but the first step is awareness of your actions and feelings and learning to calm yourself down. He often tells basketball players before they take that free throw to put themselves in a calm state of mind where they see themselves positively making that shot. He adds for some people; it’s saying mantras, and for others, it may take something else to create tranquility. The key is creating habits and routines to provide more pleasure, comfort, gratitude, hope, and inspiration, which will lead to positive emotions that increase happiness. 

“The Pursuit of Happyness” (the Will Smith movie) doesn’t just have to be about money, but an overall better mental state and happier life. Research proves happy people have better outcomes. According to an article in PositivePsychology.com

  1. Happiness is linked to lower heart rate and blood pressure and healthier heart rate variability.
  2. Happiness can also be a barrier between you and germs – happier people are less likely to get sick.
  3. More comfortable people release less of the stress hormone cortisol.
  4. Happy people experience fewer aches and pains, including dizziness, muscle strain, and heartburn.
  5. Happiness is a protective factor against disease and disability.
  6. The happiest tend to live significantly longer than those who are not.
  7. Happiness boosts our immune system, which can help us fight and fend off the common cold.
  8. Our genetics determines a portion of our happiness (but there’s still plenty of room for attitude adjustments and happiness-boosting exercises!).
  9. Smelling floral scents like roses can make us happier.
  10. Those who are paid by the hour may be happier than those on salary (however, these findings are limited, so take them with a grain of salt!).
  11. Relationships are much more conducive to a happy life than money.
  12. Happiness can help people cope with arthritis and chronic pain better.
  13. Being outdoors – especially near the water – can make us happier.
  14. The holidays can be stressful, even for the happiest among us – an estimated 44% of women and 31% of men get the “holiday blues.”
  15. Happiness is contagious! When we spend time around happy people, we’re likely to get a boost of happiness.
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Health Disparities & Medication Rejection for Patients of Color

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Most patients encounter insurance delays or denials for prescription medication at some point in their lives. But do certain groups of patients encounter these barriers more often than others? And at what cost? 

To explore this question, the Institute for Patient Access analyzed 2019, 2020, and 2021 national pharmacy claims for 3.74 million patients living with one of three diseases: asthma, chronic kidney disease, or cardiovascular disease. Claims data spanned both commercial health plans and Medicare.

The report said in an attempt to lower costs and protect profits, insurance companies can limit access to prescription medication using one of several mechanisms. Prior authorization, for example, can delay patients’ access while the provider waits for health plan approval for the prescribed medication. A lengthy rejection and appeal process sometimes ensues. 

Through step therapy, insurers require patients to try and fail one or more medications that the health plan prefers before getting coverage for the prescribed medication. Claims data show that, among asthma, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease patients covered by commercial insurance, Black and Hispanic patients experience considerably higher rejections than white patients. Not being able to access prescription medications or abandoning prescriptions (because it’s too difficult to get) can contribute to unchecked disease progression and poor health among communities of color. 

Some of the key findings

  • Commercially insured patients – Black and Hispanic patients with chronic kidney disease had claims rejected 40% and 41% more often than white patients did, respectively.
  • Medicare beneficiaries – Hispanic patients with cardiovascular disease, had claims rejected 40% more often than white patients. And Black patients with cardiovascular disease had claims rejected 25% more often than white patients.

Black and Hispanic patients not only experience higher rates of medication rejection, but also experience worse outcomes than white patients later on.

  • Commercially insured patients – For the three disease states examined, Black and Hispanic patients whose medication has been rejected at least twice are more likely to visit the emergency room than are white patients who’ve had their medication rejected. Black patients with asthma visit emergency rooms 34% more often. Black patients are also more likely than white patients to be hospitalized.
  • Medicare patients – Among patients whose medication has been rejected at least twice, Black and Hispanic patients with cardiovascular disease visit the ER 46% and 40% more often than white patients. They are hospitalized 21% and 15% more often.

The report also finds that Black and Hispanic patients are less able to tolerate high out-of-pocket costs, less likely to use a co-pay card, and more likely to abandon their prescriptions. High out-of-pocket costs can lead patients to leave the pharmacy empty-handed.

White patients have a higher tolerance for high out-of-pocket expenses. Out-of-pocket medication costs averaged $100 or more for Black and Hispanic patients on Medicare.

Regardless of insurance type, Black and Hispanic patients face worse downstream health outcomes than white patients, such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, respiratory conditions, obesity, arthritis, and more.

The Institute for Patient Access is a physician-led nonprofit research organization highlighting the benefits of patient-centered care. To see the full report, go to (InstituteForPatientAccess.org).

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