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S.A.’s First African American Federal Judge

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Courtesy of U.S. District Court (WD Texas) and Whitehouse Judicial Nominees websites.

Judge Jason Pulliam, TSU Thurgood Marshall Alum – First African American to Serve on U.S. District Court for the Western District of Texas

Published on August 11, 2019

Jason K. Pulliam, a class of 2000 graduate of Texas Southern University Thurgood Marshall School of Law, made history August 9, 2019, when he was sworn in by Chief U.S. District Judge Orlando Garcia as the First African American to serve on U.S. District Court for the Western District of Texas, since it was established by Congress on February 21, 1857. It is one of ninety-four U.S. District Courtsthat presides over general trials in the United States federal courts. The court convenes in San Antonio but has divisions in Austin, Del Rio, El Paso, Midland, Pecos, and Waco.

Tom Reel, Staff / Staff photographer/SA Express-News

U.S. Senators John Cornyn (R-TX) and Ted Cruz (R-TX) recommended Judge Pulliam to President Donald Trump as a candidate to the fill a vacancy on the Western District of Texas Court. OnMarch 5, 2019, President Donald Trump (R) nominated Judge Pulliam and on April 3, 2019, the U.S. Senate voted 51-48 in favor of a change to chamber precedent lowering the maximum time allowed for debate on executive nominees to district court judgeships. Judge Pulliam was confirmed by the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy on July 31, 2019, by a vote of 54-36. He received his commission on August 5, 2019.

Federal Judge Nominee, Jason Pulliam at Senate Judiciary Committee Nomination Hearing

 Judge Pulliam’s legal career began immediately after graduating from law school. He honorably served as a Commissioned Officer in the U.S. Marines, as a Staff Judge Advocate from 2000-2004. Following his military service, Judge Pulliam worked as an attorney for William “Bill” Ford at the law firms of Ball & Weed, P.C. and Ford & Massey, P.C. His distinguished judicial career began in 2011, as Judge for the Bexar County Court at Law No. 5 (San Antonio), until 2015. In January 2015, former Governor Rick Perry appointed Judge Pulliam as the First African American man to serve as a Justice on the Texas Fourth District Court of Appeals (San Antonio), from 2015 to 2016. Most recently, he was Of Counsel with Prichard Young PLLC, a product liability and business/commercial litigation firm, from 2017 to 2019. He has represented clients before various Texas courts, U.S. District Court for Western District of Texas, Eastern District of Texas, and Southern District of Texas.

Texas Southern University Thurgood Marshall School of Law (founder in 1946)

 Judge Pulliam earned his Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees from City University of New York and a Juris Doctor degree from Texas Southern University Thurgood Marshall School of Law. He holds active memberships in various legal, civic, and professional organizations. Congratulations Judge Pulliam on your lifetime appointment to the federal bench.

Information provided in this article was compiled from San Antonio Express-News, Ballotpedia, U.S. District Court (WD Texas), and Whitehouse Judicial Nominees websites.

Dr. Reginal D. Harris, a Law Clerk for the Law Offices of Bell & White, PLLC, in San Antonio, Texas. He is a 2018 graduate (honors) of Texas Southern University Thurgood Marshall School of Law. Dr. Harris completed two judicial externships at the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas under Senior Federal Judge Kenneth M. Hoyt; an externship with the Innocence Project at the Earl Carl Institute of Legal & Social Policy Inc.; a criminal and civil clerkship at Roberts Markland PLLC law firm; and an public service internship at Lone Star Legal Aid of Houston Inc. (Military and Veterans Unit).

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Reginal D. Harris, JD, PharmD, RPh, CPh, cMTM

Reginal D. Harris, JD, PharmD, RPh, CPh, cMTM

“Education is the greatest equalizer to attaining success.” -My Grandma, Mrs. Judie A. Belvin

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Jason K. Pulliam, a class of 2000 graduate of Texas Southern University Thurgood Marshall School of Law, made history August 9, 2019, when he was sworn in by Chief U.S. District Judge Orlando Garcia as the First African American to serve on U.S. District Court for the Western District of Texas, since it was established by Congress on February 21, 1857.

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Congresswoman Beatty Gets Pepper Sprayed During George Floyd Protest

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Nationwide — Democratic Rep. Joyce Beatty, a congresswoman from Ohio, was reportedly pepper-sprayed while trying to mediate between police officers and protesters in Columbus. The protest was one of many across the nation after the killing of George Floyd in Minneapolis.

“I was there because I wanted the young protesters to know that in solidarity, that I stand with them,” Beatty told NBC 4. “You know, I’m a grandmother, I’m an elected official, but I’m a Black woman first and I felt the pain.”

Columbus City Council President Shannon Hardin confirmed in a post on Twitter that he and the congresswoman were “sprayed with mace or pepper spray” but are now fine.

Beatty said she came to the protest to “support them.” In a video posted on Hardin’s Twitter page, she said, “It was just something in my heart thinking about George Floyd, thinking about all of the injustices, that I needed to be out there, thinking I was protecting them and it probably was not safe.”

Beatty was apparently trying to come between a police officer and a protester before an altercation between both groups happened and she was sprayed.

“One young black female took a step off (the curb) and the cop kind of took that, I guess, ‘sideways.’ Instantly, a white man kind of came to her defense and then was instantly body-slammed to the ground. The congresswoman runs out into the street to hold back the cop and the protesters. Another cop comes up with his bike and pushes the congresswoman out of the way … and then it’s naturally getting heated … that one cop pulls, I don’t know why he does it, he pulls out his Mace and does what he does,” Dominic Manecke, a spokesman for Beatty, told CNN about the incident.

Moreover, Beatty condemned how the police are handling the escalating tension during protests. In the Twitter video, she said that “too much force is not the answer to this.”

Even though she said she is proud of the protesters, she said it is important for them to remain calm. She added, “We must continue to protest, but it must be peaceful and that does not mean we aren’t standing up for justice.”

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Beyond Unacceptable

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Another Dead Black Man Too Many: The Family of George Floyd Speak Out.

From the Today Show – Delivered by Black Video News

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Black People & PTSD

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Black People, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the Risk of Death From Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Nationwide —Here are some facts: Black people have been found to be more likely to die from COVID-19 infection than white people, both in the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Black people also have a higher rate of PTSD diagnosis than white people. PTSD can result in suppression of the immune system. Immunosuppression is associated with a higher risk of death from COVID-19. It is thus not unreasonable to question whether PTSD-induced immunosuppression is contributing to the elevated risk of dying from COVID-19 amongst black people.

Data reveals that Black people are more than four times more likely to die from COVID-19 than white people in England and Wales and that even after adjusting for age, socioeconomic conditions and prior health, the figures show that Black people remain twice as likely to die from COVID-19 than white people in England and Wales, according to the Office for National Statistics.1 Some suggest sickle cell disease is the explanation, however this is unlikely, being already in a shielded group they are likely to have little or no ongoing expo-sure to COVID-19. Other contributary factors which have been highlighted are obesity, over-crowding and frontline working, however these are likely to be already adjusted for within socioeconomic status.

This article proposes that PTSD-induced immunosuppression contributes to raised mortality from COVID-19. PTSD is a condition which occurs after a traumatic experience where symptoms persist of reliving the distressing event and there is hypervigilance, numbing, mood changes including negativity about the self, the world and the future. There is avoidance of people and situations that act as reminders of the event and sleep and concentration disturbance. Physical symptoms including Neurological, Respiratory and Cardiovascular symptoms also occur in PTSD.2

What is the evidence that Black people have higher rates of PTSD?

The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey: Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, England, 2014 found doubling of the rate of PTSD amongst black adults at 8.3 per compared to white adults at 4.2 though assumed that the differences could not be relied on because of the small sizes involved.3

One study found that when PTSD affects US race/ethnic minorities, it is usually untreated and likely to become chronic and persistent and suggested that the large disparities in treatment indicate a need for investment in accessible and culturally sensitive treatment options.4 A separate two year follow up study found that African Americans with PTSD experience high number of traumas and most do not receive treatment.5

Findings from large-scale national studies suggest African Americans have a 9.1% prevalence rate for PTSD.6 This suggests that almost one in ten Black people becomes traumatized. This is an underestimate due to known under-diagnosis of PTSD in black people.7 Studies of racial discrimination and race-related stress have shown that when an individual reports psychological distress from racism, trauma was often not considered.8

Why would Black people be at increased risk of PTSD?

In addition to traumatic experiences that a person of any race or ethnicity might face, race-specific traumas include micro-aggressions and the erosion of a fundamental requirement for human beings – a sense of belonging. A striking example of that undermining of belonging was witnessed by the Windrush generation in the UK. Black people face challenges to a sense of belonging to desirable social, housing, occupational groups and on a wider scale there are challenges to the black person’s right to belong in a country such as the UK, a crude example being the ‘go back to where you came from’ statement. A sense of belonging is an intrinsic human need. The psychologist Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs defined self-actualization and self-esteem as requiring the secure foundations created by a sense of belonging.

Another often overlooked contributory factor to the large prevalence of traumas affecting Black people is Intergenerational transmission of trauma. Parent-child attachment patterns are known to replicate through generations within families. Going back to slavery and post-slavery eras, forced black familial disruption was part of the mechanism that enabled forced labour and enrichment of slave owners and others and this involved brutal disregard for the integrity of the black family unit by white oppressors. Yet another overlooked factor is vicarious trauma and witnessing shootings of unarmed black people can give rise to a sense of threat to the black viewer’s sense of their own safety.

What is the evidence that PTSD suppresses the immune system?

A study of 1,550 male workers with a previous history of PTSD concluded that PTSD produces immunosuppression and has long-term implications for health.9 This finding is now widely accepted amongst mental health professionals and a questionnaire commonly used as a tool to diagnose PTSD is the IES-r.10 A cut-off point of 37 and above in the IES-r is commonly accepted by mental health workers as associated with immunosuppression.

Treatment of PTSD

PTSD in Black people is treatable with a growing number of psychotherapies including prolonged exposure therapy, EMDR, cognitive processing therapy, somatic experiencing, if delivered by psychotherapists with training and knowledge of diversity matters. Medication is sometimes but not always required.

Conclusion

There now exists evidence for higher death rates of Black people from COVID-19 compared to White people as well as evidence that Black people have a higher rate of PTSD diagnosis than White people and furthermore that PTSD is associated with immunosuppression and we know that immunosuppression is associated with a higher risk of death from COVID-19. The proposed association described here between PTSD-induced immunosuppression and increased risk of death from COVID-19 needs to be explored further and in addition, high PTSD rates in black people need to be recognised and treated as both a mental and physical health priority.

References

1. Office of National Statistics. Release date: 7 May 2020. Coronavirus (COVID-19) related deaths by ethnic group, England and Wales: 2 March 2020 to 10 April 2020 obtained on 12 May 2020

2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Publishing

3. Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. (2014) retrieved on 11 May 2020 from https://www.ethnicity-facts-figures.service.gov.uk/health/mental-health/adults-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-in-the-month-prior-to-survey/latest

4. Roberts, A.L., Gilman, S.E., Breslau, J.N., Breslau, N., & Koenen, K.C. (2011). Race/ethnic differences in exposure to traumatic events, development of post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment-seeking for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States. Psychol Med.

5. Pérez Benítez, C., Sibrava, N., Kohn-Wood, L., Bjornsson, A., Zlotnick, C., Weisberg, R. & Keller, M. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder in African Americans: A two year follow-up study. Psychiatry Research-neuroimaging Volume: 220, Issue: 1, pp 376-383

6. Himle, J.A., Baser, R.E., Taylor, R.J., Campbell, R. D. & Jackson J.S. (2009). Anxiety disorders among African Americans, blacks of Caribbean descent, and non-Hispanic whites in the United States, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(5): 578-590.

7. Williams M., Malcoun E. & Bahojb Nouri L. (2015) Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with African Americans. In: Benuto L., Leany B. (eds) Guide to Psychological Assessment with African Americans. Springer, New York, NY

8. Carter, R. (2007). Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury: Recognizing and Assessing Race-Based Traumatic Stress. The counselling psychologist Volume: 35 issue: 1, page(s): 13-105

9. Noriyuki Kawamura, Yoshiharu Kim & Nozomu Asukai (2001) Suppression of Cellular Immunity in Men with a past history of Posttraumatic stress disorder. Retrieved on 11 May 2020 from https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.3.484

10. Weiss, D.S., & Marmar, C.R. (1997). The Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In J.P. Wilson, & T.M. Keane (Eds.), Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD: A Practitioner’s Handbook (pp. 399-411). New York: Guilford Press

Source: Anne Coker

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